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  Fourth Grade    

Chronological Reasoning and Causation


  • Explain how events are related chronologically to one another.

  • Employ mathematical skills to measure time in years and centuries.  Understand the difference between B.C.E. and C.E.  Identify the chronological significance of data presented in time lines, with teacher support.

  • Identify the relationship between multiple causes and multiple effects, using examples from his/her life or from a current event or history.

  • Distinguish between long-term and immediate causes and effects of a current event or an event in history.

  • Recognize dynamics of historical continuity and change over periods of time.

  • Use periods of time such, as decades and centuries to put events into chronological order.

  • Recognize and identify patterns of continuity and change in New York State.

Geographic Reasoning

  • Use location terms and geographic representations (maps and models) to describe where places are in relation to each other, to describe connections between places, and to evaluate the benefits of particular places for purposeful activities.

  • Distinguish human activities and human-made features from “environments” (natural events or physical features—land, air, and water — that are not directly made by humans).

  • Identify how environments affect human activities and how human activities affect physical environments.

  • Recognize relationships between patterns and processes.

  • Describe how human activities alter places and regions.

Gathering, Interpreting, and Using Evidence

  • Develop questions about New York State and its history, geography, economics and government.

  • Recognize, use, and analyze different forms of evidence used to make meaning in social studies (including sources such as art and photographs, artifacts, oral histories, maps, and graphs).

  • Identify and explain creation and/or authorship, purpose, and format for evidence; where appropriate, identify point of view.

  • Identify arguments of others.

  • Identify inferences.

  • Create an understanding of the past by using primary and secondary sources.


Civic Participation

  • Demonstrate respect for the rights of others in discussions and classroom debates, regardless of whether one agrees with the other viewpoints.

  • Participate in activities that focus on a classroom, school, community, state, or national issue or problem.

  • Identify different types of political systems used at various times in New York State history and, where appropriate, United States history.

  • Identify opportunities for and the role of the individual in social and political participation in the school, local, and/or state community.

  • Show respect in issues involving differences and conflict; participate in negotiating and compromising in the resolution of differences and conflict.

  • Identify situations in which social actions are required and suggest solutions.

  • Identify people in positions of power and how they can influence people’s rights and freedom.

  • Identify rights and responsibilities as a citizen of your community and state.

Comparison and Contextualization


  • Identify a region in New York State by describing a characteristic that places within it have in common, and then compare it to other regions.

  • Identify multiple perspectives on an historical event.

  • Describe and compare New York State historical events.

  • Recognize the relationship between geography, economics, and history in social studies.

  • Describe historical developments in New York State with specific detail, including time and place.


Economics and Economic Systems

  • Explain how scarcity necessitates decision making; compare the costs and benefits of economic decisions.

  • Distinguish between the various types of resources (human capital, physical capital, and natural resources) required to produce goods and services.

  • Explain the role of money in making exchange easier; examine the role of corporations and labor unions in an economy.

  • Explain why individuals and businesses specialize and trade.

  • Explain the meaning of unemployment.

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